Java type hinting in avro-maven-plugin

Recently, somebody shared with me the following problem: an Avro schema in Schema Registry has magically evolved into a slightly different version, albeit still backward compatible.

Schemas changing…

The first version of the schema looked like this:

    "fields" [

After it changed, the schema looked like this:

    "fields" [

To add up to the confusing, this is a topic published by Kafka Connect using MySQL Debezium plugin. Neither the database schema nor Connect or Debezium versions had changed anywhere close to when the schema evolved.

How could this have happened?

The mystery guest…

Although nothing had changed in the stack that was polling record changes from the MySQL database and sending them to Kafka… there was a new element to consider.

After some conversations, it was apparent that there was a new application publishing records to the same topic, for testing. This application was:

  1. Downloading the schema from Schema Registry.
  2. Doing code-generation using avro-maven-plugin against the downloaded .asvc files from Schema Registry.
  3. Producing some records using the newly created Java POJO classes.

Those seem like the right steps. However, looking into the options of avro-maven-plugin, once stood up:

  /**  The Java type to use for Avro strings.  May be one of CharSequence,
   * String or Utf8.  CharSequence by default.
   * @parameter property="stringType"
  protected String stringType = "CharSequence";

Could it be the culprit?

stringType does more than you expect

While the description of the property suggests something as naive as instructing the Avro code generator what class to use for Avro strings… it does more than just that.

Comparing the code for POJOs generated using maven-avro-plugin two things are different. Firstly, fields like the UUID in the schema above change their type from java.lang.CharSequence to java.lang.String; this is as expected.

However, it also changes the internal Avro schema that every Java POJO stores in:

public static final org.apache.avro.Schema SCHEMA$;

Upon changing stringType to String the resulting schema in SCHEMA$ contains the extended type definition that we saw at the beginning. The Java POJOs define this property because it is sent to Schema Registry when producing records (only once, from there one it uses the returned schema id).

Since there is no canonical representation of an Avro schema, Schema Registry chooses to take the schema as is, ignoring that both schemas are semantically identical and it should not create a new version for it.

A solution?

Can we not use stringType = String? Yes, but then all POJOs are generated using CharSequence. In my opinion, that is the best option for mixed environments. After all, this extra hint in the schema only makes sense for Java consumers.

However, if you control the topic end to end (e.g., both producers and consumers), you might as well use with stringType = String by default and guarantee that every client uses String instead of CharSequence.

In any case, both schemas are backward compatible between themselves. A correct Avro library should result in the same schema representation in whatever language you have chosen to use.

Poison Pills in Kafka (I)

What is a poison pill?

A “poison pill” is a record that always fails when consumed, no matter how many times it is attempted. They come in different forms:

  • Corrupted records.
  • Records that make your consumer deserializer fail (e.g., an Avro record whose writer schema is not compatible with the consumer reader schema).

The problem with a poison pill is unless the consumer eventually handles it, it blocks the consumption of the topic/partition that contains it, halting the consumer progress.

What can we do with poison pills?

There are many different strategies to deal with poison pills. The Kafka Streams FAQ describes some of them:

  • Log an error and shut down the application
  • Log an error and skip the poisonous record
  • Send the record to a separate topic (e.g., Dead Letter Queue) for further inspection (likely by a human operator)
  • Transform the poisonous record into a sentinel value that identifies a record that couldn’t be interpreted, downstream

Kafka Streams to the rescue

A year ago Kafka Streams added options to handle corrupt data during deserialization. This PR set the foundations for dealing with poison pills in Kafka Streams:

  • Added the new interface DeserializationExceptionHandler.
  • Introduced two default implementations for LogAndContinue and LogAndFail.
  • Added a new default.deserialization.exception.handler configuration value for StreamsConfig. Its default value is LogAndFail.

How does it work?

The key in this implementation is RecordDeserializer. This class executes whatever exception handling we have configured for our Streams application.

kafka streams poison pills

In the diagram, the classes shaded in blue are exclusive to Kafka Streams, while the class is red is part of the common Kafka code base.

If the strategy is to continue, a return null bubbles up a null ConsumerRecord to the layer above, RecordQueue, which discards the record and continue with the next one.

On runtime, for LogAndContinue, a series of warnings are logged, and the consumption continues. On the other hand, for LogAndFail a StreamsException is thrown.

There is also a set of metrics that can be monitored to make sure we are not skipping too many records.

Metric Name Description JMX path
skipped-records-rate The average number of skipped records per second. kafka.streams:type=stream-metrics,client-id=([-.\w]+)
skipped-records-total The total number of skipped records. kafka.streams:type=stream-metrics,client-id=([-.\w]+)

What about Kafka Consumer?

If your application is not using Kafka Streams, there is no support for handling poison pills in the KafkaConsumer basic consumer.

However, not all is lost. In the next installment in this series, we will see how we can implement a very similar strategy leveraging the Serde interface that KafkaConsumer uses to deserialize records before delivering them to your application.

Kafka defaults that you should re-consider (I)

Image taken from

There is a vast number of configuration options for Apache Kafka, mostly because the product can be fine-tuned to perform in various scenarios (e.g., low latency, high throughput, durability). These defaults span across brokers, producers and consumers (plus other sidecar products like Connect or Streams).

The guys at Kafka do their best to provide a comprehensive set of defaults that will just work, but some of them can be relatively dangerous if used blindly, as they might have unexpected side effects, or be optimized for a use case different to yours.

In this topic, I’d like to review the most obvious ones in the brokers’ side, explain what they do, why their default can be problematic and propose an alternative value.

Change these defaults


Defaults to ‘true’. You definitively want to change this one to false. Applications should be responsible for creating their topics, which the correct configuration settings for the various use cases.

If you keep it true, some other configuration values kick in to fulfill the default topic configuration:

  • log.retention.hours: by default, logs will be retained 7 days. Think carefully if this default is good enough. Any data older than that is not be available when replaying the topic.

  • min.insync.replicas: Default to 1. As the documentation mentions, a typical configuration is replication-factor minus 1, meaning with a replication factor of 3, min.insync.replicas should be 2. The problem with 1 is it puts you in a dangerous position, where the cluster accepts messages for which you only have 1 copy. On the other hand, a value equal to the replication factor means losing one node temporarily stops your cluster from accepting values until the missing partition has rebalanced to a healthy node.

  • default.replication.factor: Default to 1. This is a bad value since it effectively creates only one copy of an auto-created topic. If the disk that stores a partition of this topic dies, the data is lost. Even if there are backups, the consumers don’t benefit from automatic rebalancing to other brokers that have copies of the partition, resulting in consumption interruptions. I would suggest a value like 3 and then fine-tune topics that require more or less, independently.

  • num.partitions: Default to 1. Another bad value. If a topic only has one partition, it can be consumed by only one instance of an application at a time, hindering any parallelization that we might hope to achieve using Kadka. While partitions are not free and Kafka clusters have a limit on how many they can handle, a minimum value of 3 partitions per topic seems like a safer and more sensible default.


Defaults to 1400 minutes (24 hours). This is a dangerous default. Some applications might be idle over the weekend, meaning they don’t publish to Kafka during that period.

The morning after, if they restart before they consume from Kafka, the new instances don’t find any committed offsets for their consumer group, since they have expired.

At that point, the auto.offset.reset configuration in the consumer kicks in, sending the application to the earliest message, latest, or failing. In any case, this is not desirable.

The recommendation is to increase this value to something like 7 days for extra safeties.

Keep these defaults


Defaults to true. Unless you know what you’re doing, you don’t want to rebalance partitions manually. Let Kafka do it for you.


Defaults to true. If you find yourself in a highly regulated environment, you might not be allowed to delete anything, ever. Otherwise, allowing topic deletion guarantees that you can get rid of data quickly and easily.

That is especially useful in development clusters. Don’t set this to false there; you will shoot yourself on foot.

Default to ‘never’ (represented as a ridiculously long number of ms). Kafka is so performant because it enables zero-copy data transfers from producers to consumers.

While that is a fantastic mechanism for moving tons of data quickly, the durability aspect can be a concern. To account for that, Kafka proposes using replication across nodes to guarantee the information is lost, instead of explicitly flushing messages to disk as they come. The result of that is a lack of certainty about when the messages are actually written to the disk.

You could effectively force Kafka to flush to disk using this and other configuration properties. However, you would most likely kill Kafka performance in the process. Hence, the recommendation is to keep the default value.


Defaults to ‘-1’, which means messages are not acknowledged by a leader until they the value for the topic is honored.

That is a safe default, falling on the side of durability, versus lower latency. You should consider particular configurations at the topic level, dependent on the nature of the stored information (e.g., ‘logs’ been a lower value than ‘orders’).


Defaults to ’50’. Kafka automatically created the topic __consumer_offsets with this number of partitions. Since this is likely to be the busiest topic in your cluster, it’s a good idea to keep the number of partitions high so that the load is spread across as many nodes as possible.

__consumer_offsets cannot be changed for the lifetime of the cluster, so even if you are not planning to have 50 brokers in your cluster, it falls on the safe side to maintain this number as it is.


Defaults to ‘3’. Similar to the previous value, but to configure how many copies of your __consumer_offsets you want. 3 copies is a safe default and should probably only be changed to rise to a more significant number.

More copies of the topic would make your cluster more resilient in the event of broker failure since there would be more followers ready to that the role of the fallen leader.


Defaults to ‘false’. Used to be ‘true’ by default because it was optimized for availability. In the case of a leader dying without any follower been up to date, the cluster to continue operating if this value is set to ‘true’. Unfortunately, data loss would result..

However, after Aphyr roasted Kafka for this data loss scenario, Kafka introduced this configuration value and eventually changed it to ‘false’ to prevent data loss. With this default, the cluster stops operating until a follower that was up to date with the fallen leader arises (potentially, the fixed leader itself), preventing any loss.


There are many more configuration values that play essential roles in the broker side, and we haven’t even mentioned any of the values in the client side (e.g., consumers, producers). In following posts, I’ll jump into those and describe what sensible defaults are and what you should think twice before blindly embracing.

Timeouts in Kafka clients and Kafka Streams

Broken chain

IMPORTANT: This is information is based on Kafka and Kafka Streams 1.0.0. Past or future versions may defer.

As with any distributed system, Kafka relies on timeouts to detect failures. Those timeouts can be sent by clients and brokers that want to detect each other unavailability. The following is a description of the configuration values that control timeouts that both brokers and client will use to detect clients not being available.

The original design for the Poll() method in the Java consumer tried to kill two birds with one stone:

  • Guarantee consumer liveness
  • Guarantee progress as well, since a consumer could be alive but not moving forward

However, this design caused a few problems. The solution was to introduce separate configuration values and background thread based heartbeat mechanism.

Since Kafka, the heartbeat happens from a separate, background thread, different to the thread where Poll() runs. The description for the configuration value is:

The expected time between heartbeats to the consumer coordinator when using Kafka’s group management facilities. Heartbeats are used to ensure that the consumer’s session stays active and to facilitate rebalancing when new consumers join or leave the group. The value must be set lower than, but typically should be set no higher than 1/3 of that value. It can be adjusted even lower to control the expected time for normal rebalances.

The default value is 3 seconds. This heartbeat will guarantee an early detection when the consumer goes down, maybe due to an unexpected exception killing the process. However, back pressure or slow processing will not affect this heartbeat.

Introduced with Kafka as well, compensates for the background heart-beating but introducing a limit between Poll() calls. The description for the configuration value is:

The maximum delay between invocations of poll() when using consumer group management. This places an upper bound on the amount of time that the consumer can be idle before fetching more records. If poll() is not called before expiration of this timeout, then the consumer is considered failed and the group will rebalance in order to reassign the partitions to another member.

The default value is 30 seconds, except for Kafka Streams, which increases it to Integer.MAX_VALUE.

When the timeout expires, the consumer will stop heart-beating and will leave the consumer group explicitly. With this new configuration value, we can set an upper limit to how long we expect a batch of records to be processed. Together with max.poll.record and the appropriate timeouts for third party calls, we should be able to determine fairly accurately how long an application may stay unresponsive while processing records.

Also, has a role in rebalances. Since we know it represents how long processing a batch can take, it is also implicitly timeout for how long a client should be awaited in the event of a rebalance. Therefore, the client sends this value when it joins the consumer group. On the event of a rebalance, the broker will wait this timeout for a client to respond, before kicking it out of the consumer group.

Finally, while the previous values are used to get the client willingly out of the consumer group, this value controls when the broker can push it out itself. The description for this configuration value is:

The timeout used to detect consumer failures when using Kafka’s group management facility. The consumer sends periodic heartbeats to indicate its liveness to the broker. If no heartbeats are received by the broker before the expiration of this session timeout, then the broker will remove this consumer from the group and initiate a rebalance.

The default is 10 seconds. Clients have to define a value between the range defined by and, which are defined in the broker side.

What does this all mean?

In a nutshell, it means that you have to configure two types of timeouts: heartbeat timeout and processing timeout. The former accounts for clients going down and the second for clients taking too long to make progress.

Heartbeating will be controlled by the expected and the upper limit defined by

Processing will be controlled by On the client side, kicking the client out of the consumer group when the timeout expires. On the server side, communicating to the broker what is the expected rebalancing timeout.

The Integer.MAX_VALUE Kafka Streams default default for Kafka Streams was changed to Integer.MAX_VALUE in Kafka to strength its robustness in the scenario of larga state restores. Fortunately, after changes to the library in 0.11 and 1.0, this large value is not necessary anymore.

In any case, it is still recommended to use a generous timeout in case of calls to external third parties from a stream topology. For a node that goes down, will quickly be triggered since the background heartbeat will stop.

For a node that is simply taking too long to process records, the assumption is any other instance picking up those records would suffer the same delays with the third party.


Separating and allows a tighter control over applications going down with shorter, while still giving them room for longer processing times with an extended

This is specially useful for Kafka Streams applications, where we can hook complicated, long-running, processing for every record.


Incompatible AVRO schema in Schema Registry

My company uses Apache Kafka as the spine for its next-generation architecture. Kafka is a distributed append-only log that can be used as a pub-sub mechanism. We use Kafka to publish events once business processes have completed successfully, allowing a high degree of decoupling between producers and consumers.

These events are encoded using Avro schemas. Avro is a binary serialization format that enables a compact representation of data, much more than, for instance, JSON. Given the high volume of events we publish to kafka, using a compact format is critical.

In combination with Avro we use Confluent’s Schema Registry to manage our schemas. The registry provides a RESTful API to store and retrieve schemas.

Compatibility modes

The Schema Registry can control what schemas get registered, ensuring a certain level of compatibility between existing and new schemas. This compatibility can be set to one of the next four modes:

  • BACKWARD: a new schema is allowed if it can be used to read all data ever published into the corresponding topic.
  • FORWARD: a new schema is allowed if it can be used to write data that all previous schemas would be able to read.
  • FULL: a new schema that fullfils both registrations.
  • NONE: a schema is allowed as long as it is valid Avro.

By default, Schema Registry sets BACKWARD compatibility, which is most likely your preferred option in PROD environment, unless you want to have a hard time with your consumers not quite understanding events published with a newer, incompatible version of the schema.

Incompatible schemas

In development phase it is perfectly fine to replace schemas with others that are incompatible. Schema Registry will prevent updating the existing schema to an incompatible newer version unless we change its default setting.

Fortunately Schema Registry offers a complete API that allows to register and retrieve schemas, but also to change some of its configuration. More specifically, it offers a /config endpoint to PUT new values for its compatibility setting.

The following command would change the compatibility setting to NONE for all schemas in the Registry:

curl -X PUT http://your-schema-registry-address/config 
     -d '{"compatibility": "NONE"}'
     -H "Content-Type:application/json"

This way next registration would be allowed by the Registry as long as the newer schema were valid Avro. The configuration can be set for an specific schema too, simply appending the name (i.e., /config/subject-name).

Once the incompatible schema has been registered, the setting should be set back to a more cautious value.


The combination of Kafka, Avro and Schema Registry is a great way to store your events in the most compact way possible, while still retains the ability to evolve the corresponding schemas.

However some of the limitations that the Schema Registry imposes make less sense on a development environment. On some occassions, making incompatible changes in a simple way is necessary and recommendable.

The Schema Registry API allows changing the compatibility setting to accept schemas that, otherwise, would be rejected.

FAQ: Story points

Story points are quite old, but there are still way too many misunderstandings around them. Below I’m going to try to shed some light on the most common doubts around them.


What are Story Points?
It’s a way to measure the effort necessary to implement a story, where a story is some requirement that an Agile team is going to convert into working software.


How do they work?
You have a scale of values, you define a baseline (a really simple story that you would consider requires an effort of 1 point) and then you estimate everything relatively to that baseline story. If a story requires the same or less effort than your baseline, you give it 1 point. If it is roughly twice as difficult, you assign 2 points. The values in the scale have to be spacious enough to make sure you don’t try to estimate “too precisely”. Therefore many teams choose Fibonacci series as their scale (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, etc).


Wait a minute, what do you mean by “don’t try to estimate too precisely”? And why not just estimating using time?
I mean exactly that. When you use this technique, you are implicitly recognising that you can’t provide meaningful estimations with the level of detail that a time estimation requires. In plain English, you recognise your estimations in time are not accurate, therefore they don’t have any value.

Instead you use a more high-level, less-precise measure like story points. Even if it is less precise than a time-based estimation, it is more valuable because it’s more stable and, overtime, it will be more helpful to forecast team and project progress.


Is effort all I have to take into account when estimating with story points?
Not necessarily, although it is the most important bit. Other things that you may consider are:

  • How clear are the requirements and acceptance criteria in the story?
  • Does it look like they may be many technical or business unknowns that will be discovered during the implementation phase?
  • Is there any technical risk? For example, are you using a technology for the first time?

The more question marks around the story, the higher the number of story points.


Can I sum story points?

No, you can’t. They don’t represent numbers, they represent buckets. That means that, when you have a story that is the same or less effort  than your base line, you put in the 1-point bucket. When it’s the same or less than twice the effort for your base line, you throw it to the 2-point bucket, etc. You get the point.

Also quite often the amount of time require to implement a 3-point story will be much more than 50% more the effort of a 2-point story. There is no linearity, not to mention that the higher the bucket, the wilder the oscillation in implementation time (which makes sense because the higher the risk too).


Is Story Points the only way to measure stories and forecast?

No, there are other metrics. T-shirt sizes is quite common too. Some people also consider using “ideal days”. This one is, more or less, a representation of how much work you can do in a perfect day, without meetings, without distractions and without any other problem. Then you assign those ideal days to stories and, if you’re working on sprints, over time you can measure how many actual ideal days your team has per sprint.


Do I have to use Story Points if I do Scrum?

Not at all. If you check the Scrum Guide, story points aren’t mention anywhere. That makes all the sense, because contrary to what many people think, Scrum is a quite loose framework (not a process) that you have to fill in with your own practices to come up with a development process. Actually, years ago the Guide didn’t even mention estimations. It just mentioned your backlog should be ordered and it was up to the Product Owner to discover what that order should be.


Why should I use Story Points then?

You shouldn’t if you don’t know why you would use them. And you would use them if you want to provide some forecasting regarding your project. Basically, been able to answer the question: “when is this going to be done?”. Story Points help you answer that question because, overtime, you get some sense of how many points you can deliver per unit of time, where that unit of time is usually your sprint size in weeks. Based on that, you can be reasonable confident about how many stories you can get done and when, on a relatively close time horizon. Don’t try to estimate a massive project using story points before even starting it, it won’t work. You won’t have enough understanding of the project, the stakeholders and the technology and your estimations will have zero value.


Why should I estimate in the first place?

Well, if you are a developer, estimating doesn’t add any value to you; zero. You just want to get a list of things to do and nail them and you don’t need to communicate in advance when they’ll be done, right? However, some people would argue that part of been a professional engineer includes providing meaningful estimations regarding delivery of software to the rest of the business. In better words than mine:

Avoiding responsibility for estimates is another way of saying, “I’m not ready to be relied upon for building critical pieces of infrastructure.” All businesses rely on estimates, and all engineers working on a project are involved in Joint Activity, which means that they have a responsibility to others to make themselves interpredictable. In general, mature engineers are comfortable with working within some nonzero amount of uncertainty and risk.

So man up and come up with some respetable estimations that you’re willing to commit to.


Should Management measure team’s productivity using Story Points? 

NEVER. That is one of the biggest mistakes that can be done. If you do so, you’re going to make two mistakes in one:

  • You will ruin story points as a tool to estimate. Eventually every human being tends to trick any system rules, even unconsciously. If you measure people’s productivity with points, they will just inflate their estimations to make it look like more points are delivered per sprint, therefore the team is doing more. Wrong and useless.
  • You’ll miss the opportunity to use a proper and useful measure, like business value. Not saying that business value is easy to measure, though, but definitively worth trying instead of measuring something that is completely irrelevant and easy to trick.


What’s the difference with Planning Poker?

Planning Poker is just a estimation technique, not a estimation measure. You use planning poker as a way to take advance of the “Wisdom of Crowds”. Planning Poker is useful because:

  • Estimations are done and presented without knowing other members’ opinion. Therefore more junior/shy members won’t be influenced by estimations presented by senior/stronger players.
  •  If estimations don’t match, a healthy debate is triggered where more information is brought into the discussion for those that have bigger/smaller numbers. That benefits the final estimation and also helps all team benefit from the insights of each member.


Is that all?

Not really, there are many other things that are interesting on this topic, like trying to correlate points with time (bad idea IMHO) , what a good scale for points should look like, what to do if you realize after implementing a story that it was over/under estimated, how to manage scope creep, etc. Maybe for another day.

Knockout: bindear booleano a radio button

Knockout JS es un framework realmente útil para hacer páginas web dinámicas. Últimamente he tenido la oportunidad de utilizarlo bastante y, siendo un total inexperto, puedo decir que facilita mucho las cosas y tiene una excelente documentación.

Sin embargo, recientemente me encontré en una situación en la que tuve que invertir bastante tiempo para conseguir hacer funcionar un binding entre un par de radio buttons, una propiedad JavaScript del viewModel de Knockout y la correspondiente propiedad en el modelo MVC que recibía mi acción del controlador.

El error

El error se manifestaba simplemente no funcionando el binding entre mi propiedad JS del viewModel y los correspondiente radio buttons. En un primer momento el binding parecía ir bien, pero al enviar la página de vuelta al servidor y retornar al mismo punto por existir algún error en la validación del modelo MVC, el binding no saltaba y los radio buttons no se marcaban según los valores que el usuario hubiera elegido.

La razón

Los radio buttons definen sus valores como strings mientras que la propiedad del modelo MVC era booleano. Entre medias Knockout intentaba “lidiar” entre ambas, pero al recibir el modelo MVC de vuelta tras la validación, su valor booleano no bindeaba correctamente con los radio buttons por ser sus valores cadenas en lugar de booleanos también.

La solución

Probablemente haya múltiples, pero en mi caso la más sencilla fue utilizar un binding custom entre los radio buttons con valores string y la propiedad JS del viewModel.

Utilizando un interceptor entre los valores que llegan de los radio buttons y la propiedad, podemos convertir en ambos sentidos entre booleanos y strings convenientemente.

El custom binding se aplica sobre el binding “checked” habitual de los radio buttons, de forma que podemos reaprovechar todo el mecanismo ya existente.


StackOverflow – Knockoutjs (version 2.1.0): bind boolean value to select box

Por qué hacemos self = this en JS?

Cuando empecé a utilizar Knockout JS, descubrí que existía una cierta convención según la cual, al crear la función Constructor del modelo que se “bindea” con Knockout, la primera línea siempre era la siguiente:

var self = this;

No tenía ni idea de porqué se hacía esto, pero entendía que era necesario para, posteriormente, poder definir y añadir los distintos métodos y propiedades que formaban el modelo.

Ahora, gracias a los vídeos de “JavaScript The Good Parts” de Douglas Crockford en Pluralsight, por fin sé el porqué de esta misteriosa pero indispensable línea. Y las razones son realmente dos.

Una función anidada no tiene acceso al this externo

Como bien explica Douglas, cuando dentro de una función definimos otra función, la función anidada no tiene acceso al puntero this que la función externa ha recibido.

Para superar esta limitación, en ocasiones veremos código en el que se define una línea como la siguiente.

var that = this;

Con esto lo que conseguimos es capturar en la función superior el puntero this, para posteriormente permitir a la función anidada acceder a la variable that que contendrá el mismo valor que contenía this cuando fue capturado.

Exactamente la misma técnica es la que estaremos aplicando al capturar this en una variable de nombre self. De esta forma las distintas funciones que crearemos como parte de la definición del modelo, podrán acceder al this que originalmente recibió la función constructora.

Pero, por qué querríamos acceder a ese this original que la función constructora recibe? Aquí entra en juego el segundo principio que define esta técnica.

La función constructora recibe el nuevo objeto en this

Esta es la otra clave de esta técnica. Cuando una función se invoca con el operador new (como hacemos al crear el modelo), se crea un nuevo objeto y se asigna al puntero this que recibe la función que estamos invocando con el operador.

Esto a efectos prácticos significa que el this que recibiremos en la función constructora es el propio nuevo objeto al que estaremos añadiendo propiedades y métodos como parte del código de dicha función.

De este peculiar modo nuestra función constructora no sólo inicializa el objeto como haría un constructor de un lenguaje estático como Java o C#, sino que también añade la propia funcionalidad al asignar funciones y propiedades.

Routing with WCF

Today we face a problem in Production environment. We needed to route some WCF requests from one “publicly visible” server to an internal one. A typical routing scenario.

Fortunately these requests were received in a WCF service and this technology has a built-in routing feature since 4.0 version. To use it we don’t need to change any code, it is enough to modify the app.config/web.config of the services. Here we can see how to use it, step by step. All these XML code will be place inside system.serviceModel tag

First Step – Define the new Service

We have to define a new Routing service that will receive all the requests. It will, later, internally dispatch them depending on certain routing rules. The XML necessary is:

  <service name="System.ServiceModel.Routing.RoutingService" behaviorConfiguration="routerConfig">
    <endpoint address=""
              name="reqReplyEndpoint" />

Two things that we may notice:

  • The services needs a behavior configuration. In this configuration, later, we will define the routing table.
  • We don’t define an address because we assume the service will be deployed in a IIS server. If we want to do some tests with Casinni, we will need to define an address.

Second Step – SVC hosting file for the new service

Since WCF 4.0 we don’t need the SVC files to host a WCF service, we can define them in app.config/web.config and the internal plumbery of WCF/IIS is smart enough to allow us calling the corresponding URL as if the SVC file really exists. This is the XML necessary for that:

    <add relativeAddress="RiskManagementServiceUAT.svc" service="System.ServiceModel.Routing.RoutingService, System.ServiceModel.Routing, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35" />

Two more points to consider:

  • The relative address must contain an extension. For example, if we define it as “RiskManagementService.UAT”, without SVC extension, it will fail.
  • The service needs to specify the complete qualify name in this case, but it is not usual. In other projects that we have used this “virtual SVC” system, it was not necessary. Apparently there is some kind of limitation with the RoutingService.

Third Step – Service behavior configuration

We referenced a service behavior when we defined the service in step 1. Below we can see that configuration, that will need to indicate what routing table we have to use.

    <behavior name="routerConfig">
      <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="true" />
      <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="true" />
      <routing routeOnHeadersOnly="false" filterTableName="routingTable" />

Things to consider here:

  • Be sure the name of the behavior matches what you set when defined the service.
  • serviceMetadata may not be necessary in a production environment, if you don’t expect new clients to be created from your service WSDL.
  • serviceDebug MUST NOT be activated in production environment. It is a security risk.
  • In the routing tag we will indicate the name for the routing table to be used in this RoutingService service.

Fourth Step – Routing table

We are getting close to the end… We need to define the routing table. There is complex patterns that we may want to follow, like taking into account headers or contents in the messages. It is really useful for versioning, load-balancing and similar stuff. However, in our concrete scenario we only want to redirect all messages to the internal server, so we didn’t need a complex solution. This was our table:

    <filter name="matchAll" filterType="MatchAll" />

    <filterTable name="routingTable">
        <add filterName="matchAll" endpointName="RiskService" />

Three important points here:

  • Under filters tag we will define all possible filters. In this case we use the MatchAll filter. In bibliography there is a link for all filter types in WCF.
  • Under filterTables tag we define all the possible tables. We may have different tables for different routers. In our case, we define a “routingTable” in the service behavior in Step 3 and here it is.
  • As part of every table we will bound filters with endpoints. This is a very flexible approach, we can define as many possible filters as we may need for all our endpoints and later just correlate them in the filter table.
    • filterName will be the name of the filter to apply.
    • endpointName will be the name of the endpoint where the message will be routed when the filter is matched. This endpoint corresponds to a new element defined in the next step.

Fifth Step – Client endpoints

The router is a sum of input messages, routing logic and destination services. We have defined 2 of 3. In this point we will define what services will receive the messages once the routing is done. Here it is is the XML.

  <endpoint name="RiskService"
            contract="*" />

So what do we have here? Just being “client” of the service where we want to send messages under certain criteria defined in Step 4. Pay attention to the name that we give to the endpoint, because this name must match the value for endpointName in the entries of the filter table defined in Step 4.


WCF is not a easy technology, but it is really powerful and, with enough knowledge and patience there is a great number of scenarios that you can cover with just defining appropriate XML configuration. No coding, no compiling, no deploying, just playing with the app.config/web.config and you get a very powerful Routing Service that is able to route base on headers, message content, protocol, etc.